Diploma in Radio Imaging/Radiography Technology

Radiography is concerned with operating radio imaging machines such as MRI, CT- Scan, Ultrasound & X-ray and interpreting results. Have you ever noticed those guys in hospital gowns who escort patients for an X-Ray, CT-Scan or MRI or Chemotherapy? They are the ones who operate the machine for you and later interpret the results for doctors. The word used for them are Radiographers. Radiographers, also known as radiologic technologists, are certified technicians who capture images of organs, bone, and tissue for patient diagnosis.

Radiographers are equipped with the technological skills to handle imaging equipment and the interpersonal skills necessary for patient care. India's healthcare sector is on a growth trajectory, the career opportunities for such allied health care workers with expertise in diagnostic science have never been better. Services of diagnostic professionals can be essential for medical treatments and their demand is on the rise.

Radio imaging can also be termed as a technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology). Radio/Medical imaging seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and treat disease. Radio/Medical imaging also establishes normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities.


FIELDS OF STUDY

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non invasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. Magnetic resonance imaging is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, electric field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body. MRI does not involve X-rays and the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT or CAT scans. Magnetic resonance imaging is a medical application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

Ultrasound

Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is no different from 'normal' (audible) sound in its physical properties, except in that humans cannot hear it. This limit varies from person to person and is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults. Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertzes.

Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and structures inside the body. Health care professionals use it to view the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound does not expose you to radiation. During an ultrasound test, you lie on a table. A special technician or doctor moves a device called a transducer over part of your body. The transducer sends out sound waves, which bounce off the tissues inside your body. The transducer also captures the waves that bounce back. The ultrasound machine creates images from the sound waves.

Ultrasound is used in many different fields. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure distances. Ultrasound imaging or sonography is often used in medicine. In the nondestructive testing of products and structures, ultrasound is used to detect invisible flaws. Industrially, ultrasound is used for cleaning, mixing, and to accelerate chemical processes.

Medical sonography (ultrasonography) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic medical imaging technique used to visualize muscles, tendons, and many internal organs, to capture their size, structure and any pathological lesions with real time tomographic images. Ultrasound has been used by radiologists and sonographers to image the human body for at least 50 years and has become a widely used diagnostic tool. Sonography does not use ionizing radiation, and the power levels used for imaging are too low to cause adverse heating or pressure effects in tissue.

Ultrasound is also increasingly being used in trauma and first aid cases, with emergency ultrasound becoming a staple of most EMT response teams. Furthermore, ultrasound is used in remote diagnosis cases where teleconsultation is required, such as scientific experiments in space or mobile sports team diagnosis.

CT-Scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting. It is also termed as computed axial tomography (CAT scan) and computer aided tomography.

Radio/Medical imaging is the most common application of X-ray CT. Its cross-sectional images are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines.

The term "computed tomography" (CT) is often used to refer to X-ray CT, because it is the most commonly known form. What Is CT Scan?

CT, or CAT scans, are special X-ray tests that produce cross-sectional images of the body using X-rays and a computer. CT scans are also referred to as computerized axial tomography. Improvements have led to higher-resolution images, which assist the doctor in making a diagnosis. For example, the CT scan can help doctors to visualize small nodules or tumors, which they cannot see with a plain film X-ray.

X-Ray

X – Ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays.

X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, as are radio waves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation and microwaves. One of the most common and beneficial uses of X-rays is for medical imaging. X-rays are also used in treating cancer and in exploring the cosmos.

Electromagnetic radiation is transmitted in waves or particles at different wavelengths and frequencies. This broad range of wavelengths is known as the electromagnetic spectrum. The EM spectrum is generally divided into seven regions in order of decreasing wavelength and increasing energy and frequency. The common designations are: radio waves, microwaves, infrared (IR), visible light, ultraviolet (UV), X-rays and gamma-rays.

X-rays are roughly classified into two types: soft X-rays and hard X-rays.

Soft X-rays fall in the range of the EM spectrum between (UV) light and gamma-rays. Soft X-rays have comparatively high frequencies — about 3 × 1016 cycles per second, or hertz, to about 1018 Hz — and relatively short wavelengths — about 10 nanometers (nm), or 4 × 10−7 inches, to about 100 picometers (pm), or 4 × 10−8 inches. (A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter; a picometer is one-trillionth of a meter.) Hard X-rays have frequencies of about 1018 Hz to higher than 1020 Hz and wavelengths of about 100 pm (4 × 10−9 inches) to about 1 pm (4 × 10−11 inches).

Hard X-rays occupy the same region of the EM spectrum as gamma-rays. The only difference between them is their source: X-rays are produced by accelerating electrons, while gamma-rays are produced by atomic nuclei.

X-rays are produced when electrons strike a metal target. The electrons are liberated from the heated filament and accelerated by a high voltage towards the metal target." When the electrons strike the target, their energy is converted to X-rays. X-rays can also be produced by a synchrotron, a type of particle accelerator that causes charged particles to move in a closed, circular path. When high-speed electrons are forced to move in a circular path by a magnetic field, the angular acceleration causes the particles to emit photons.

X-rays are also essential for transportation security inspections of cargo, luggage and passengers. Electronic imaging detectors allow for real-time visualization of the content of packages and items that passengers might carry on their persons. The original use of X-rays was for imaging bones, which were easily distinguishable from soft tissues on the film that was available at that time. However, more accurate focusing systems and more sensitive detection methods, such as improved photographic films and electronic imaging sensors, have made it possible to distinguish increasingly fine detail and subtle differences in tissue density, while using much lower exposure levels. Additionally, computed tomography (CT) combines multiple X-ray images into a 3D model of a region of interest.

X-ray imaging exams are recognized as a valuable medical tool for a wide variety of examinations and procedures. They are used as a noninvasive and painless method for diagnosing disease and monitoring therapy, and supporting medical and surgical treatment planning. They are also used in guiding medical personnel as they insert catheters, stents or other devices into the body; treat tumors; or remove blood clots or other blockages.

X-Ray Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells by damaging their DNA. However, the treatment can damage normal cells as well as cancer cells. Therefore, the National Cancer Institute recommends that treatment must be carefully planned to minimize side effects. X-rays deposits a large amount of energy into a small area, enough energy to strip electrons completely way from atoms, thus altering their chemical properties and breaking molecular bonds. In sufficient doses, this can damage or destroy cells. While this cell damage can cause cancer, it can also be used to fight it. By directing X-rays at cancerous tumors, the abnormal cells can be killed.

The problem, though, is that this also kills healthy cells along the path of the beam. To reduce this problem, the patient lies on a table and is treated with radiation from multiple directions. The exposure to surrounding tissues is minimized, because healthy tissue receives only a single small dose from the moving beam, while the tumor receives doses from every angle.
Rirt SYLLABUS FOR RADIO IMAGING/RADIOGRAPHY COURSE